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The Indian Criminal Law

The Criminal Law In India Is Divided Into Three Major Acts

1. Indian Penal Code, 1860

2. Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973

3. Indian Evidence Act, 1872

Apart From These Three Major Acts Of Criminal Law, Special Criminal Laws Are Also Passed By The Indian Parliament. These Other Laws Include Food Adulteration Act, Prevention Of Corruption Act, The Defense Of India Act, Dowry Prevention Act And There Are Thousands Of Other Minor Acts And Laws That Fall Under The Criminal Law Of India.

1. Indian Penal Code (IPC)

Indian Penal Code Is The Main Criminal Code Of India. IPC Covers All The Substantive Aspects Of Criminal Law. Under The Chairmanship Of Thomas Babington Macaulay IPC Was Established Taking Into Consideration The Charter Act Of 1833 And Based On The Recommendations Of First Law Commission Of India Which Was Established In 1834, The IPC Law Came Into Existence In 1860. Although It Was In Working Force In British India During The Early British Raj Period Of 1863, It Was Not Naturally Applied To The Princely States. The Princely States Had Their Own Courts And Laws Till 1940s. From Then Till Now, The Code Has Been Revised Several Times Due To The Need Of The Changing Times And Is Now Supplemented By All The Other Criminal Provisions.

2. The Code Of Criminal Procedure (Crpc)

The Code Of Criminal Procedure Is The Main Legislation That Deals With Administration Of Substantive Criminal Law In India. It Was Created In 1973 And Came Into Force On 1st Of April 1974. The Main Function Of Crpc Is To Provide The Needful Equipment For The Investigation Of Crime, Collection Of Evidence, Apprehension Of Suspected Criminals, Determination Whether The Person Is Innocent Or Guilty And The Determination Of The Correct Punishment For The Guilty. Additionally, CrPC Also Deals With Prevention Of Offences, Public Nuisances And Maintenance Of Child, Wife And Parents. Currently, The Code Of Criminal Procedure Act Contains 2 Schedules, 56 Forums And 484 Sections. The Sections Are Further Divided Into 37 Independent Chapters.

3. The Indian Evidence Act

The Indian Evidence Act Contains A Set Of Rules And Allied Issues That Govern Admissibility Of Evidence In The Indian Court Of Law. The Indian Evidence Act Was Originally Passed In India By Imperial Legislative Council In 1872 During The British Raj.

The Founding Father Of The Indian Evidence Law Is Sir James Fitzjames Stephen. The Indian Evidence Law Led To The Authorization And Adoption Of The Indian Evidence Act. This Move Was Considered To Be Very Important As It Was A Path-Breaking Judicial Measure Introduced In India. This Act Changed The Entire System Of Concepts Relating To The Submitting Of Evidences In The Indian Court Of Law. Until Then, The Traditional System Was Followed By Different Social Communities And Groups Of India When It Came To Rules And Evidences. The Problem With Traditional System Was That Different Rules Were Applied To Different People Of India Depending On The Caste, Community, Social Position And Faith Of The Person. Due To The Enforcement Of Indian Evidence Law, A Standard Set Of Law Came Into Existence For All The People As It Began By Considering People As Citizens Of India And Not According To Their Religion Or Social Status.

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